In this section, you will learn about jazz guitar playing and in particular learn some useful chords and common chord progressions. Open chords are seldom used in jazz, neither is triads. Among the most used chords are extended chords (i.e. 7th, 9th, 11th, 13th) and are played in moveable shapes with various voicings.
The "start package" of jazz chords
The four shapes below are moveable and can be used for all notes. Two have the bass note on the sixth string and the other two on the fifth string.
maj7 (shape 1)
maj7 (shape 2)
m7 (shape 1)
m7 (shape2 )
Are you not sure how to play a specific chord? If you for example play the maj7 shape 1 with the bass note on third fret it would be a Gmaj7. And if you for example play the maj7 shape 2 with the bass note on third fret it would be a Cmaj7. See notes on the fretboard.
The second shape of m7 have only three notes you could add a fourt by playing it as X2X232 for example. More chords will follow below.
Add basslines between chords - two easy examples
Basslines are common in this music style and here are two playing examples (illustrated in tabs) that show you how this can be done in an very simple approach.
The first example use the chord shapes above with bass notes on the sixth string.
The second example use the chord shapes above with bass notes on the fifth string.
It's not necessary to play exactly as in the tabs, the most important is that you apply the chords and the basslines concept in some way.
Common chord progressions in jazz
Here is some common jazz progressions in jazz.
Dm7 – G7 – Cmaj7
The formula for the progression above is:
ii7 – V7 – I7
This means that you can use the same chord formula in all keys. The roman numerals tells which note it is in the scale and small numbers mean minor, otherwise it's major.
A second progression, with chromatic motion:
Dm7 – Db7 – Cmaj7 (ii7 – bII – I7)
Let’s take another one, based on the same formula with one chord added:
Bm7 – E7 – Amaj7 – Fm7
In both these cases the first chord in the progression has not been first in the key, which is typical for jazz progressions. The first progression is in the key of C and the second in the key of A. See a larger collection of jazz progressions.
Chord substitutions are very common in jazz and means that a chord is changed to another with the same root, for exempel C shifting to Cmaj7 or D7 shifting to D13.
The chord progression Cmaj7 - Am7 - Dm7 - G7 could sound slightly different with some substitutions. One way could be Cmaj7 - Am9 - Dm11 - G13.
Other moveable chord shapes in jazz
Then playing jazz on guitar it will often sound better to play on 3 to 5 strings instead of 5 or 6. Therefore the regular barre chords will not be especially suited.
These moveable chords will bring more "jazzy" sounds than other typical chord versions. The shapes could be difficult depending on your ability to reach over the fretboard, therefore are simplified chord presented as well, which by the way can sound equally good or even better in many situations.
First, we will look on two ways (including simplified versions) to play the seventh chords with the bass note on the sixth and fifth string respectively.
Both dominant ninths and minor ninths are pretty common in jazz. Here are suggestions for chords shapes to use.
11th and 13th chords
Also common is eleventh and thirteenth chords. Here are suggestions of shapes.
Here is a chord progression to try using the shapes above
Bm7 – E9 – A7 – D9
Here are the specific shapes written out:
12 bar structure
You could also play a 12 bar blues with the shapes above and include G7, C9 and D9.
Open chords in jazz?
If you're used to play open chords, some of these can be useful in a jazz context after all. Even if they are not the most viable chords in guitar jazz music you could practice the standard major seventh and minor seventh chords in open positions. Both categories create another color to the sound than the usual major and minor chords.
Play chords over scales
If want to improvise jazz a great way is to play scales over chords (see the article "The relationship between chords and scales"). It is great if you could play together with someone else. If not, you could play with some backing tracks.
If we return to the common Dm7 – G7 – Cmaj7 progression you could play three different scales over it. There are many possibilities, one way would be: D Dorian over Dm7, G minor blues pentatonic over G7 and C Lydian over Cmaj.
More in-depth readings could be found in Jazz Guitar Chord Mastery: A Practical, Musical Guide to All Chord Structures, Voicings and Inversions.
A last tips is that you should listen to jazz music to get more familiar with the style. Here are some great guitarists:
- Wes Montgomery
- Kenny Burrell
- Lenny Breau
- Joe Pass
- George Van Eps
You will not have any problems finding compilation albums with these names.
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